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The Research on the Environment Data Statistics and Analysis of Cave¡¯s Management Based on the Mogao Caves

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Tutor: ZhangMingQuan; WangWanFu
School: Lanzhou University
Course: Environmental Engineering
Keywords: Cave,Micro-climate monitoring,Data analysis,Management
CLC: K879.21
Type: Master's thesis
Year:  2013
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With the standard of people¡¯s material and cultural life being raised, the environment that had ever been ignored is increasingly concerned by people. In some way, The good or bad of environment has become an attribute to test life quality and social improvement. For cultural relics, the environment also influences the quality of cultural relics¡¯existence. However, as environmental awareness gradually growing today, the environment for cultural relics gets attention from some relative aspects.Cultural relics environment refers to the space that cultural relics exists and all natural and human elements that influence cultural relics protection directly or indirectly. In our country, due to the restrict of economic condition and deterioration of physical environment quality together with the effect of cultural environment, the rate of cultural relics being worsen is larger. There is a large number of examples of environment causing damage to cultural relics, such as stone relics weathering, metal relics corrosion, the acidity of papers rising, murals and paintings fading and so on.The group research, The Environmental factors Influencing on Cultural Relics Protection and Research on the Standard of Environmental Quality of Cultural Relics Conservation by the State Science and Technology Commission, takes an investigation and analysis for over30national key protection sites in recent years and finds air pollution is the culprit of damaging the relics, and dustfall, acid gas and acidification are the main factors of them¡£ Environment monitoring at heritage sites has an important significance of the protection and management of heritage sites, which is the basic support of management organization making decision to the protection and governing of the sites. Environmental monitoring and its significance is involved in such articles as The Guidelines of the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage Convention by UNESCO, Measures for Administration of World Cultural Relics Protection by the Ministry of Culture. The SACH also enacts¡¯Measures for Patrol Management of World Cultural Heritage Monitoring in China¡¯and provides for the main content of monitoring at World Cultural Heritage sites. And the China Principle requires relative scientific monitoring measures and stage monitoring and also believes that daily maintenance and monitor system is the basic and key method for cultural relics. The environmental monitoring at Mogao Grottoes experienced a process that is from nothing to building, from simple to complicated, from intuitive to systematic and from passive to active. The conclusion for scientific analysis of monitor results has a good significance of improving the standard of protection and administration of Mogao Grottoes.This paper studies monitor data in micro-climate from caves and analyzes the change of temperature, relative humidity and CO2concentration inside and outside of the cave due to natural and humain intervention and also combines micro-climate change in the cave with deterioration mechanism of the relics. Based on the analysis and research of environmental data of the Mogao caves in recent20years, it concludes the previous research results, and takes a systematic analysis and study of micro-climate changes in and out of the caves in the condition of regular opening, simulated state, May and October holidays and rainfall and forms the threshold of highest relative humidity and CO2concentration through combining with deterioration mechanism of murals. By using of the threshold, cave micro-climate monitor is further applied into the administration of the caves. The content of this paper mainly includes the following aspects:(1) By utilizing SF6, the caves in different levels, structure, size and with corridor or not are selected to study air velocity in the cave and it provides the basic and complete scientific data for tourist capacity test.(2) During the goden weeks of May and October holiday, it makes an analysis of the influence of visits to cave micro-climate at peak-hour tourism and finds the extrema of cave micro-climate at Mogao in the condition of the most tourist visiting.(3) Taking an analysis of monitor data of temperature and humidity from caves in the process of extreme weather (raining) and make sure the feature of micro-climate changes in the cave during the rain that can give data support to cave management in the future.(4) Through the analysis and research of cave micro-climate data, it combines the mechanism of mural deterioration and finds the thresholds of relative humidity and CO2concentration and then determines the state of cave opening by the threshold. This can promote the protection of cultural relics to transfer from passive conservation to active conservation. It has a guiding and practical significance for the building of monitor system in other heritage sites and at the same time it provides a scientific and standard direction for environmental monitoring system of Mogao.
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