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Research on Hierarchical Routing Protocols of Wireless Sensor Networks--DARP

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Tutor: ChenBing
School: Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Course: Applied Computer Technology
Keywords: Wireless sensor network,routing,data aggregation,connected dominating set,multic
CLC: TN915.04
Type: Master's thesis
Year:  2009
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A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a data communication system that consists of from several to thousands of tiny wireless sensor nodes. These nodes cooperate with each other to accomplish data transmission. Compared with traditional networks, the greatest feature of WSN is that its energy is limited. As a result, energy-saving becomes WSN¡¯s hot problem. To address the problem of limited energy and cluster-heads¡¯limited communication distance, a new hierarchical routing protocol based on data aggregation¡ª¡ªDARP (Data Aggregation based Routing Protocol) is proposed.Firstly, the conception, feature, application area of WSN are introduced briefly in this paper; then, the present hierarchical routing protocol for WSN are given and merits and demerits of them are analysed; finally, by analyzing the effective measures of energy-saving in WSN, DARP is proposed, and the system model is given in this paper.In the aspect of intra-cluster, DARP_IHMDA (DARP_Interval-Hoop Multi-path Data Aggregation routing protocol) is proposed, which emphasizes the significance of data aggregation. According to DARP_IHMDA, the area of a cluster is divided into four parts, Information-Queue is set by cluster-head to establish the next-hop node, and then a Hamilton cycle can be formed in each sub-area according to the Information-Queue. Data aggregation can be done through the cycle.Between clusters, two algorithms are proposed in this paper: one is DARP_MCDS(DARP_Minimum Connected Dominating Set algorithm), the other is DARP_RMSPT(DARP_Reversing Multicast Shortest Path Tree based routing algorithm). To solve the problem of cluster-heads¡¯limited communication distance, a smaller connected dominating set is got according to DARP_MCDS, which lays a better communication foundation for constructing routing. According to DARP_RMSPT, a reversing multicast shortest path tree can be constructed. Through the tree, all clusters can be connected, and the cost of data transmission is least. According to both of the two algorithms, nodes in netowork only require partial information of network topology. Consequently, these two algorithms can overcome the defect in centralized algorithm which need to collect information on the entire network. As a result, the two algorithms have better scalability.Besides, simulation results illustrated that DARP could keep the balance of energy consumption in the sensor network, which can prolong the lifetime of the network.
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