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The Effects of Carbon Materials and Polianiline on Negative Performance of Ultrabattery

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Tutor: ZhaoLi
School: Harbin Institute of Technology
Course: Chemical Engineering and Technology
Keywords: Lead-acid battery,Ultrabattery,State of charge,Cyclic performance,Carbon materia
CLC: TM912
Type: Master's thesis
Year:  2012
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Because of high energy efficient, environmentally friendly and clean,electric vehicles are helpful to alleviate energy crisis, reduce environmentalpollution and greenhouse effect, etc. The key factor of EV whether are widelyused or not is the power supply. The ultra battery combined lead-acid battery andsuper capacitor is suitable for power supply of EV due to excellent powerperformance, short charging time, low cost and long cyclic life underhigh-rate-partial-state-of-charge(HRPSoC).In this paper, the main work were that different proportions of materials hadbeen added into negative plates to research the effects of materials onultrabattery performance, especially cyclic performance under HRPSoC. Theadded materials included electrochemical active carbon(EAC), graphite powder(GP), multi-walled carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs), commercial polyaniline(CPANi), and synthetic polyaniline(SPANi) and composites(EAC/PANi,GP/PANi, MWCNTs/PANi) through the microemulsion synthetic method. Thephysical properties of added materials and negative plates were characterized byXRD, SEM and the electrochemical performance was measured by Linear SweepVoltammetry, Chronoamperometry, Cyclic Voltammetry and ElectrochemicalImpedance Spectroscopy. The cyclic performance of batteries was tested under2C charge-discharge duty.The battery added0.5mass%EAC in negative plate cycled7100times,which is about10times as many as Commercial Negative Plate(CNP). Analysedthrough SEM characterization and electrochemical measurement, t he primereasons of improved cyclic performance of the battery with0.5mass%EAC arethat small particle sizes and high specific capacitance of EAC could uniformlydisperse NAM, buffer large current, inhibit negative sulfation, and improve theefficient of PbSO4converted to active lead. The optimum ratio of GP in negativeplate is1.5mass%. The battery with1.5mass%GP cycled12800times, about18times as many as CNP, which is attribute to the excellent conductivity of GP thatreduces negative electrochemical polarization and inhibits negative sulfation.The battery with0.1mass%MWCNTs in negative plate cycled6300times, about9times more than CNP. The effects of MWCNTs in NAM are similar to EAC.The battery added1.5mass%CPANi in negative plate cycled9645times,about13times more than CNP. After analyzed, the valid roles of CPANi in NAMare following aspects: Firstly, small particle sizes of CPANi can uniformly disperse NAM to increase NAM utilization rate; Secondly, CPANi with loose andporous structure has the ability of storing electrolyte, which is benificial toelectrode reaction; Thirdly, the faradic pseudocapacitance of CPANi can bufferlarge current to inhibit PbSO4salinization. The battery with0.5mass%SPANicycled4786times, which about7times as many as CNP. In order to further studythe effects of the capacitance of polyaniline materials on the performance ofultrabattery,10mass%different kinds of polyaniline were added into negativeplates. Measured by CV, the roles of polyaniline capacitance to NAM are obvious.But the cyclic performance of batteries with10mass%polyaniline is notimproved markedly, which maybe because high content of polyaniline with largerparticle size and lower conductivity than active lead in negative plate makes theelectrochemical polarization and concentration polarization of N AM increase andthe current of hydrogen evolution rise.
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