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Study of Automatic Dynamic Balancing System for Automobile Engine Crankshaft

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Tutor: ZengSheng
School: Zhejiang University
Course: Chemical Process Equipment
Keywords: crankshaft,dynamic balancing,automatic,PLC,genetic algorithm
CLC: U464
Type: Master's thesis
Year:  2012
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Abstract:
The automobile industry of our country develops rapidly in recent years, and the annual output and sales volume of the automobile are growing annually at double-digit rates. In the year of2011, the automobile¡¯s annual output and sales volume in China has reached the number of18.4million. The engine is the heart of an automobile, whose property determines the automobile¡¯s quality. The crankshaft is an indispensable super-speed part in the engine, because the reason of design, maldistributions of the material and quality, dimensional deviation from manufacture and so on, its mass center often deviates from the gyration center. As a result, when the crankshaft operates at a high speed, vibrations and noises will be generated. The vibration always has a bad effect to the engine, and which is often the case, it will shorten the service life of the engine and the automobile. It is necessary to balance each crankshaft. Meanwhile, with the development of the automobile engine towards the direction of high speed and high parameters, the accuracy grade of the crankshaft¡¯s dynamic balancing has been requested higher and higher.So, an automatic balancing system for engine crankshaft with a high efficiency and high accuracy is needed, which could improve the quality of products, as well as the profitability of enterprises. Although there are foreign automatic products, because of their expensive price and rigid requirements to the crankshaft, they cannot satisfy the need of crankshaft processing industries in our country.According to the situation mentioned above, this thesis studied the automatic dynamic balancing system for engine crankshaft which is based on the work of our research team in rotor balancing. The system has been made successfully and put into commissioning by combining the engineering application. And the experimental results prove that the system is successful. The main work of the subject is listed as follows:1) The overall framework of the system is analyzed and designed. From the viewpoint of the whole system, the key problems that should be considered are summarized.2) According to the shape particularity of the crankshaft, different components are designed respectively. Meanwhile, the stiffness and the strength of some key parts are analyzed by the finite element method.3) The control system is ascertained which is based on PLC, and the touch panel has been selected as man-machine interface. Functions that the system should be achieved have been analyzed and sorted.4) The man-machine interface is programmed, which makes the system more convenient.5) The key technologies in the balancing process are studied, such as automatic knife aiming, automatic positioning and so on. What¡¯s more, influence coefficient method of multi-plane based on genetic algorithm is put forward.6) The overall debugging and operating are completed.
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